• Gary Moller

Is bathing in Central North Island thermal water endangering your health?

In a word, the answer is "Yes!", if you bathe in the wrong waters! There are thermal pools in the Central North Island that are so toxic with arsenic that they should be shut down, or at least, come with health risk warnings. The highest levels of arsenic contaminated thermal waters tend to concentrate about the Tokaanu region, bordering on Lake Taupo. This may represent a hazard to health.

I asked this question myself, when my partner, Alofa fell unusually ill after bathing in private mineral pools in Tokaanu. It gradually dawned on us that she had been affected by poison. While she was successfully treated, the process of learning more about the source of contamination, then confirming it with laboratory tests of the suspect water and identifying other cases of ill health coinciding with bathing in the same water has taken a while. I am now confident of the evidence to put it out for public attention and scrutiny. Hence this report.

How arsenic get's into geothermal water

I am not an expert in geothermal geology; but here is my understanding of what is going on:

High levels of arsenic in thermal water happens when super-heated subterranean geothermal water passes through a vein of arsenic-laced rock while on its way to the surface, dissolving the mineral as it goes. One geothermal spring may be high in arsenic and/or other minerals; whereas another adjacent to it may have a different composition: it all depends on what kind of rock the water passes through.

Some, if not all geothermal springs in Tokaanu, pass through arsenic-laced rock, producing some extremely high readings of arsenic in the water.

Is Tokaanu a toxic thermal wonderland?

The answer is "Yes!"

"Total arsenic and four arsenic species; arsenite (iAsIII), arsenate (iAsV), dimethylarsinic acid(DMAV) and monomethylarsonic acid (MAV), are reported in 28 geothermal features from the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) and Waikato region of New Zealand. Samples were collected for arsenic speciation analysis via a solid phase extraction (SPE) kit allowing the separation, stabilisation and pre-concentration of the species at the time of sample collection in the field.

This is the first research to present data for arsenic species collected by this technique in geothermal waters from New Zealand. Total arsenic concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ranged from 0.008 to 9.08 mg l−1 As. The highest levels were discovered in three features in Tokaanu (Taumatapuhipuhi, Takarea #5 and #6), with arsenic concentrations of 8.59, 8.70 and 9.08 mg l−1 As, respectively. Inorganic arsenic species were predominant in the geothermal waters, with arsenite contributing to more than 70% of the total arsenic in the majority of samples. Organic species were also determined in all samples, indicating the presence of microbial activity.

A potential risk to human health was highlighted due to the high levels of arsenic, mainly as arsenite, in geothermal features linked to bathing pools. Further research is needed into dermal absorption as a potential route of arsenic exposure whilst bathing in these hot pools, as it may contribute to an occurrence of acute arsenic-related health problems."

Arsenic speciation of geothermal waters in New Zealand Gillian Lord, Nick Kimb and Neil I. Ward J. Environ. Monit., 2012,14, 3192-3201 DOI: 10.1039/C2EM30486D First published online 12 Nov 2012


I have corresponded with one of the authors of this study, Neil Lord, who has been very helpful. There is no question that arsenic levels are extremely high in some, or all geothermal waters in Tokaanu. The one question coming from his research, that is yet to be answered, is how much of this toxin is absorbed into the body of a person while bathing in these waters? I find it astonishing that public health officials have not made it a priority to answer whether people are being contaminated with arsenic and their health damaged.

Years have passed with little apparent action and one must wonder just how many people have been harmed in the meantime.

New Zealand markets itself to the rest of the world as being a clean and green paradise, including where one can bathe in health-enhancing geothermal hot pools.

Is this one Big - Fat lie?

This article presents compelling evidence that there is a relationship between bathing in arsenic contaminated waters and elevated levels of body tissue arsenic after the bathing - as well as the subjects then falling ill with ailments that are consistent with arsenic toxicity.

In addition, I supply evidence below of tissue analyses showing low levels of arsenic prior to the bathing and I can show tissue levels returning to low after avoiding further exposure and after giving nutrients that help chelate arsenic out of the body.

The most compelling evidence is all of these people reported feeling ill shortly after bathing in these waters, sufficient to seek medical assistance.

What is arsenic and what is arsenic toxicity?

Arsenic is an element of the Universe that is classed as a "metaloid". Arsenic is toxic to human health when in concentrations of more than a few parts per million. Enzyme activity within cells is what drives metabolism (life). Arsenic displaces desirable elements within enzymes, such as selenium, zinc and sulphur, causing the enzyme to either slow down or to stop completely. It also interferes with anti-oxidants such as betacarotenoids.

In this article, we are discussing arsenic "toxicity" not "poisoning". Toxicity refers to low levels of exposure to a toxin that may lead to chronic and often subtle symptoms of ill health that gradually weaken and wear a person down as the months turn into years. "Toxicity" levels of exposure and their health consequences are usually ignored or dismissed by health experts as being insufficient to cause illness. This is, of course, disputed.

Symptoms of arsenic toxicity

Symptoms of arsenic toxicity center around chronic fatigue, aching muscles, aching joints, sore tendons, rapid onset of arthritis, various connective tissues disorders, including frozen shoulder and tendon contractures, thyroid issues, poor hair, skin and nails, brain fog, viral infections and a long list of immune related disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis.

Arsenic is a carcinogen, possibly because of its interference with zinc and selenium.

Arsenic - the quiet poison

Arsenic was once the poison of choice by disaffected wives, as a means of quietly knocking off the man she had come to hate. Arsenic was fed to Napoleon Bonaparte and the most likely cause of his death. The legendary NZ race horse, Phar Lap, was nobbled by a massive dose of arsenic, possibly added to his oats. Not nice!

Hair Tissue Mineral Analysis (HTMA) were used to confirm the presence of arsenic in toxic amounts in both Phar Lap and Napoleon Bonaparte at their times of death. The same test, using mass spectrometry, is what is employed here as evidence of arsenic toxicity from bathing in geothermal waters.

The fascinating origins of "Drop - Dead Gorgeous" and "Green with envy"

Arsenic was used during Victorian times as a medicine for the treatment of diseases, such as cancer and syphilis. I guess, in these cases, the diseases were worse than the treatment!

What is not so well known is arsenic-soaked fabrics were popular for their brilliant green sheen. Arsenic was also popular for a blemish-free skin!

Arsenic - the secret to a good complexion

"Beauty Soap". Popular during Victorian times, probably producing a slightly green complexion.

Skeleton dressed in an arsenic laced Victorian Gown

A stunning Victorian woman attired in a gown that was the envy of the day.

Arsenic laced Victorian Gown

A drop dead gorgeous gown from Victorian times.

Images source: The Pragmatic Costumer

Blood tests for assessing arsenic contamination

Blood tests are most helpful because the test can tell if an exposure to arsenic has been very recent, or if a therapy, like chelation, has been successful in mobilising a deposit that is hidden deep within the body.

Blood tests can be misleading if the exposure to the toxin has been longer than a few weeks ago. This is because toxins like arsenic will not remain in the circulation for longer than a few days before dropping steeply in blood concentration. The body will do all it can to get this poison out of circulation as quickly as it can so as to minimise the damage. It does this by excreting the toxin via the bile, urine, sweat and shedding hair, skin and nail tissue. What can not be immediately excreted via these pathways is sequestered in "safe" or relatively inert tissues, such as the bones and fat, and also in organs like the liver. As the body is able, these sequestered deposits will be gently excreted in fits and starts over time, often years, if not decades. Its a slow process if not assisted by chelation therapies.

The Hair Tissue Mineral Analysis (HTMA) for assessing arsenic contamination

Any episodes of the ingestion of a toxin such as arsenic and any later episodes of detoxification can be identified by way of the HTMA - so long as the hair sample is of hair that was growing at the time of the exposure and/or detoxification. As with Phar Lap and Napoleon Bonaparte, their hair samples remained an accurate forensic record, valid many decades later.

Why do polluters and their insurers tend to favour blood tests over the HTMA?

Polluters and their insurers always seem to favour the blood test over the HTMA for measuring worker or public exposures to toxins. A cynic, which I am, may assume that "polluters" will tend to favour the scientific tests that minimise the downsides of their polluting ways.

A blood test will show only recent exposure - not historical. So long as there is a delay of a week or two after being contaminated the affected population will tend to produce "clean" blood test results. Not so with the HTMA which can pick up the tell-tale traces months and even years later.

As a hypocritical contradiction, the very same agencies that poo-pooh the HTMA for toxic exposures, may use the exact same test for detecting and firing employees who may have smoked a joint several months ago. By the way, the HTMA service that I provide never, ever will test for illicit substances.

You can learn more about the HTMA by going here:


Tokaanu thermal water known to be highly toxic with arsenic

Please Note:

This report does not apply to hot pools that use municipal water that is heated by geothermal water by way of a closed heat exchange system. In this report, we are referring to geothermal waters that have come directly from geothermal hot springs.

The image below is the HTMA for my partner, Alofa, who fell ill within days of bathing in a natural thermal hot pool in Tokaanu, November 2014. Symptoms included extreme fatigue, muscle and joint pain.


We had contacted the pool owners, in December 2016, while researching for this report, inquiring about any water testing they may have done on their natural thermal pools. No details have been received. Their input to this report is still welcome at any time and we will gladly update it accordingly.

Highly elevated arsenic after bathing in thermal hot pools in Tokaanu

Alofa's HTMA above shows extremely high levels of arsenic (As). It took some months to figure out the possible source of the arsenic and only after identifying similar cases involving elevated arsenic after bathing in the same pools at the same motel in Tokaanu. We subsequently took a water sample from the pool, in the photo below, for testing.

She soaked in these pools, to be specific (note the green tinge, arsenic?):

Oasis Motel & Holiday Park Turangi Thermal Pool

The presence of extremely high levels of arsenic was confirmed by independent laboratory testing of a sample of water collected from this pool.

The report:

Dated 12 June 2015

"Hi Gary, Your water report is attached. The arsenic result is elevated in this water sample. We expected to see some arsenic as it is a thermal water but it was higher than we expected. We don’t have any references for thermal water for arsenic but as a general comparison the upper limit for drinking water is 0.01 g/m3 (equivalent to mg/L or ppm)".